For example, what led up to the initial diagnosis in your patient (what signs or symptoms was the patient exhibiting; what brought him/her to seek help)?

Posted: March 21st, 2022

Pathophysiology is a study of perturbations of normal physiology that result in disease manifestations in an individual. This course provides an advanced understanding of normal physiology and how, when it is altered, disease (pathology) results.
Thus, you should come to understand the relationship between abnormal physiology
and disease. So, when you are discussing a disease, you need, first of all, to have an
understanding of the normal physiology of the organ or organ system that your study
will concern.
Then, once you have that understanding, you will describe what pathophysiological
changes occur in that organ or organ system and how these lead to the clinical
expression of the disorder you are describing in your paper.
To this end, your research paper will allow you to illustrate your understanding of the
relationship of normal and abnormal physiology. Your study can be of a patient with a
particular disease or disorder that interests you especially, or it can be one that you
learned about through your contacts with patients or even friends or family, or yourself.
You are already aware that each disease has a particular etiology, or cause
(sometimes, the etiology is not known), and follows a sequence of developments
(pathogenesis) that reflects physiologic change (disruption of homeostasis) occurring in
the patient throughout the progression of the disease. The changes that occur in the
patient during the development of the disease are reflective of damages (lesions) that
have been produced and that disturb normal physiology.
How should you approach the production of a clearly written paper that will
demonstrate your understanding of pathophysiology and enable you to relate your
studies in this course to disease occurrence and development in a patient?
If you choose to write about a patient:
1. If you choose to write about a patient with whom you have (or have had) contact in
your work and who has a disorder that is of interest to you, you will need information
concerning the patient’s history (both before and during the course of his/her disease
progression). This information can be elicited by talking to the patient and also talking
with the patient’s physician(s). You will maintain confidential the name and any identifying
characteristics of the patient.
2. Once you have determined the disease and the patient to which you will direct your
study, read everything you can find in the clinical literature, your textbook, the Internet,
etc. about the disorder. This part of your study MUST INCLUDE articles from clinical
journals (eg., The New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the AMA, Nursing Science
Quarterly, etc) and you can also cite scholarly internet sources of information pertinent to
the disorder. ALL sources are to be of a scholarly nature. DO NOT INCLUDE articles,
pamphlets, or internet sites intended for the uninitiated lay person.
Your paper will have four sections: Introduction, Case Study, Conclusions, and Literature
Cited. Each section will begin on a new page and the title of the section should be typed
and centered at the top of the page.
 INTRODUCTION: In the Introduction you should discuss the background
information concerning the disease as it is presented in the literature – this should
represent a thorough study of the literature with reference to the particular disease
exhibited by the patient. Here, you will present what is known about the etiology
(or possible etiology) of the disease or disorder, as well as what is known about
the typical progression of the disease in an afflicted individual. Define the type of
disease you are studying (is it infectious, hereditary, due to deficiency or excess,
etc.)? What are the usual clinical manifestations of the disorder? Be thorough, be
curious, become an expert in the description of the disease or disorder. This
section is to be written in narrative form – in other words, tell the story of the
disease (without any reference to your specific patient). Remember to properly cite
the sources of your information.
 THE CASE STUDY: This is the second part of your paper and here you will
discuss the specific patient you have chosen as an illustration of an individual who
manifests the disease presented in your Introduction. For example, what led up to
the initial diagnosis in your patient (what signs or symptoms was the patient
exhibiting; what brought him/her to seek help)? You can use the following points
as a guide to lead you to a clear understanding of your patient:
o what is the etiology (if known) of your patient’s disorder; that is, is it
congenital, hereditary, acquired, etc.
o what has been the pathogenesis (development) of the disease from
its onset to the current status of the patient; was the onset rapid or
insidious; is the disease in its early or late stages, etc.
o what are the clinical manifestations, in the patient, of the disorder
(signs and symptoms); how have these changed as the disease has
progressed through its various developmental stages; is the disease
acute or chronic.
o what tissues, organs, organ systems are affected.
o what is the lesion distribution – body region (is the distribution local
or systemic) or organ distribution (is the distribution focal or
o are there any factors that might possibly have affected the
development of the disease in the patient – for example did age,
ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic factors, etc., influence the
development of the disease
o are there, or have there been, any sequelae; might any be
expected to occur and what might these be. If there have been
sequelae, what is the basis for their development.
o what is the patient’s prognosis?
o what therapies are being used or are being considered and
what is the rationale for the therapy.
This is only a list that may serve as a guide to help you with your case
study. DO NOT present your case study as information in list form. It is to
be presented as a clearly written narrative concerning the course of
disease in the patient.
 CONCLUSIONS: In this section you will compare what you learned from your
review of the literature (as presented in the INTRODUCTION ) to your CASE
STUDY of the patient and draw conclusions as to whether the progression of the
disease in your patient has been typical or atypical, whether more than one
etiology is (or might be) responsible and, if so, how the multiple causes are related
to each other in the development of the disorder, and what you predict will be the
outcome of the disease in the patient.
 LITERATURE CITED: Here list all references that you have cited in your
for this section. You must have AT LEAST 12 scholarly references. DO NOT
INCLUDE any pamphlets, internet sites, or other materials intended for the
uninitiated lay person.
If you choose to do a literature search concerning a particular disease:
1. You will begin by reading about the normal physiology of the organ or system that is
the topic of your paper. For this, it will be useful to study what is present in your
textbook as well as what is written in the scholarly literature about the normal
functioning of said organ or organ system. How does the organ or organ system
contribute to maintaining homeostasis in the individual. This will constitute the
INTRODUCTION section of your paper.
2. You will then discuss the disease that is the topic of your paper (e.g., diabetes
mellitus, stroke, mitochondrial disorders, etc.). This part of your paper should include
the pathophysiological changes that you would expect to encounter in a patient with the
disorder – what is/are the clinical expression(s) of the disorder that result from the
disordered physiology in a patient. What is the timeline of the clinical changes that
would take place in a patient. This section of your paper should be entitled
3. The LITERATURE CITED section of your paper will include AT LEAST 12
SCHOLARLY REFERENCES that you have CITED in your paper. DO NOT include any
non-scholarly materials such as pamphlets, Internet materials that are not refereed,
materials intended for the non-professional.
As noted above and in the Course Outline, your paper will constitute 25% of your final grade for this course. Since this is a major portion of your grade, it is important that you begin to work on it immediately and spend ample time reading the literature and collecting data concerning your patient and/or disease PRIOR TO writing your paper. Before you submit your paper, make sure that it is free of misspellings and that grammar usage is correct.
Sources must be within the 5 years.
Sources must include: Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children, 8th ed.
McCance & Huether
ISBN: 9780323583473
Elsevier Health Sciences, 2018
Comments from Customer
Discipline: NURSING-Advanced Physiology and Pathophysiological

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